RESEARCH / PUBLICATIONS

How Much Do We Export?

The question of our overall trade balance, how much we export and import, is one that has always been of significant concern, and one that has bedeviled many successive administrations, particularly those of recent times. It is generally ideal for a country to have a high level of both exports and imports, with roughly an equal amount of both. If exports are too great, there are negative effects such as strong appreciation of the currency, the need to reinvest surplus forex, and inflation.
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Subhedars

The Subhedars

The mainstay of current tax reform discussions in Pakistan arrives at the unanimous conclusion that the tax system is deeply flawed and cannot continue the way that it has. The most prominent and à propos recommendations include an expansion of the tax base, a reduction of unfair burden
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PIA and the Promise of Privatisation

The Pakistan International Airlines (PIA), once the shining jewel among global airlines, still carries the legacy of its golden era. Though recent decades have posed challenges and shifted the carrier to face financial headwinds, the spirit of the airline remains undimmed. The combined challenges of a fluctuating economy, global events such as the COVID-19 ​
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Cost-of-Living Crisis: Here to Stay for a While!

With inflation hitting record-high levels, millions of low- and middle-income Pakistanis are reeling from a cost-of-living crisis. Since the beginning of the war in Ukraine in late February last year and the subsequent global commodity price hikes, costs of
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Our Sovereign Wealth

Sovereign wealth funds (SWF) are one of the most potent financial forces of the modern era, and having carefully studied SWFs through the prism of public value, I have come to see considerable merits in creating such institutions, but only in specific contexts.
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